Addax antelope

Females  Females 

Addax nasomaculatus (de Blainville, 1816)

French: Addax, Antilope Blanche
German: Mendesantilope; Addaxantilope
Spanish: Adax
Arabic: Begar el Ouach, Akash, Tamita

Regional endemic subspecies

No valid subspecies have been described.


Total length: 1.20 - 1.75 m
Tail length: 27 - 35 cm
Shoulder height: 95 - 115 cm
Weight: (m) 100-135 kg, (f) 60-90 kg
Gestation: 252 - 267 days

This pale antelope has a chocolate-brown tuft on the forehead and a white mas around the eyes. Both sexes carry spiralled horns.

Regionally extinct. The Addax antelope was formerly distributed in NW Sudan. Today, if at all possible, only vagrants from Chad might enter Sudan.


The addax is well adapted to harsh conditions like sand-dune deserts and stony plateaus. It is mainly active at night and at dawn and dusk. Formerly it tend to live in groups of up to 20 animals, but today much smaller. Migratory herds of hundreds are now past.

Conservation Status

IUCN - Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd; C1+2a(ii) ver 3.1

Trend:  Decreasing

Ex situ programs/Collection plans:

ISB: Terrie Correll, The Living Desert

EAZA RCP status:

  • EEP, Heiner Engel, Hannover, established 1991

AZA RCP status:

  • SSP, Bill Houston, Saint Louis Zoo


Appendix I


Generally only a large-scale regional approach will guarantee the survival of a viable and genetically robust population. Recognizing the special challenges posed by highlymobile, wide-ranging desert species, new approaches are needed to complement more traditional ones based on the control of poaching and the establishment of parks and reserves. Approaches are needed that are as flexible and as mobile as the addax itself, and in the vastness of the Sahara it is with the nomadic human population that the best chance of finding solutions exists. A proposal to establish a protected area in Wadi Howar in N Darfour would provide an opportunity to restore populations of Addax if it became necessary and feasible. Considering the degraded conditions of the steppe areas in Sudan, substantial habitat restoration measures may be a necessary prerequisite. To control poaching within large protected areas may be extremely difficult.


AZA Antelope and Giraffe TAG Regional Collection Plan (2008): 5th Edition, December 2008: 95-96.

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Cloudsley-Thompson JL (1992): Wildlife massacres in Sudan. Oryx 26: 202-204.

Dorst J & Dandelot P (1970): Larger Mammals of Africa, Collins Field Guide, London.

Engel H & Brunsing K (1999): Europäisches Zuchtbuch / European Studbook Addax nasomaculatus (de Blainville 1816). Zoo Hannover.

Groves C & Grubb P (2011): Ungulate Taxonomy, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore: 205.

Haltenorth T & Diller H (1997): Saeugetiere Afrikas und Madagaskars, BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, Muenchen.

Kingdon J (1997): The Kingdon Field Guide To African Mammals, Academic Press, San Diego.

MacKenzie PZ (1954): Catalogue of wild mammals of the Sudan occurring in the natural orders Artciodactyla and Perissodactyla. Sudan Museum (Natural History) publication NO. 4, Khartoum.

Newby J (2006): Saving the addax. Oryx, 43(3): 256.

Wilson D E & Mittermeier R A (Editors) (2011): Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2, Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicione.







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