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Hartebeests

Lelwel hartebeest Tora hartebeest Swayne's hartebeest


Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)

French: Le Bubale
German: Kuhantilope
Spanish: Alcelafo
Swahili: Kongoni


Regional endemic subspecies

A. buselaphus lelwel Lelwel; Lelwel hartebeest
A. buselaphus tora Tora; Tora hartebeest
A. buselaphus swaynei Korkay; Swayne's hartebeest

Groves C & Grubb P (2011) and Wilson D E & Mittermeier R A (2011) consider these subspecies as full species.


Description

Total length: 160 - 215 cm
Tail length: 30 - 70 cm
Shoulder height: 107 - 150 cm
Weight: (f) 116 - 185 kg, (m) 125 - 218 kg
Gestation: 8 months

A large, high-shouldered, deep-chested antelope with long legs, a short neck and a very long, narrow face. The horns which are shorter and thinner at the females, are carried on hollow bases, or "pedicels", and show considerable variation (45-83 cm) from individual to individual and from region to region. Coloration also shows considerable regional variation, in the Korkay from Ethiopia (A. b. swaynei) the overall body colour ranges from silvery purplish to red or dark brown and the blotches of black on shoulders and knees vary in shape and extent.


Distribution

A. b. lelwel: SW Ethiopia, S Sudan
A. b. swaynei: S, E and Central Ethiopia, (N Somalia, Djibouti: former distribution; extinct)
A. b. tora: N, W Ethiopia, (Eritrea, E Sudan: former distribution; probably extinct)


Ecology

Hartebeest normally live in herds of up to 20 individuals or even more in rainy seasons. They prefer open savanna and wooded grassland. Adult bulls are territorial. Most activity takes place during the day. They are primarily grazers and can dispense with water for long periods. The alarm call is a nasal snort.


Conservation Status

Extinction of the Bubal should serve as a warning about the vulnerability of this species. At present there is no reliable proof that Tora may still exist in any of its former known range. Swayne's/Korkay are at very low level. The Korkay is now extinct in Somalia and Djibouti where it was once present in vast herds. Lelwel is the most abundant subspecies in this region with its biggest population in Mago-Murule, Ethiopia. Swayne's hartebeest is now confined to entirely to four protected areas in Ethiopia: Senkele Wildlife Sanctuary, Nechisar N.P., Awash N.P. and the newly designated Mazie N.P.. Apart from being easy to hunt and possessing very tasty meat, this antelope declines wherever there is competition from intensive cattle-keeping, due to competion for grasing land and diseases transmission (i.e. rinderpest epidemics). 

IUCN - Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 (at the species level, but note subspecies)

Trend:Decreasing

Ex situ programs/Collection plans:

EAZA RCP status:

  • Monitored by person, Mon-P (only for A. b. caama); Monitor person to be appointed.

AZA RCP status:

  • Population Management Program, PMP for A. b. jacksoni; for Conservation Link and Education; Jeff Spratt, St. Catherine’s Island/WCS
  • Phase Out for A. b. caama
  • In situ focus, ISF for A. b. swaynei; Martha Fischer, Saint Louis Zoo


Recommendations

Swayne's survival depends on improved protection of these remaining populations. Surveys are urgently required to determine the distribution and status of the Tora in areas such as W Eritrea, as a precursor to the developement and implementation of protective measures. No individuals of Swayne's hartebeest and Tora are held in captivity.


Literature

AZA Antelope and Giraffe TAG Regional Collection Plan (2008): 5th Edition, December 2008: 82-83.

Dorst J & Dandelot P (1970): Larger Mammals of Africa, Collins Field Guide, London.

Flagstad O, Syversten PO, Stenseth NC & Jakobsen KS (2001): Environmental change and rates of evolution: the phylogeographic pattern within the hartebeest complex as related to climatic variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B, 268: 667-677.

Groves C & Grubb P (2011): Ungulate Taxonomy, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore: 208-211

Haltenorth T & Diller H (1997): Saeugetiere Afrikas und Madagaskars, BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, Muenchen.

Kingdon J (1997): The Kingdon Field Guide To African Mammals, Academic Press, San Diego.

Thouless C (1996): Aerial Survey for Wildlife in Omo Valley, Chew Bahir and Borana Areas of Southern Ethiopia. Gnusletter, 1: 20-25.

Wilson D E & Mittermeier R A (Editors) (2011): Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2, Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicione.


Links

http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Artiodactyla/Alcelaphus_buselaphus.html

http://www.arkive.org/hartebeest/alcelaphus-buselaphus/




Lelwel hartebeest

Adult

Alcelaphus buselaphus lelwel (Heuglin, 1877)

F: Bubale de Lelwel
G: Lelwel-Kuhantilope
S: Alcelafo de Lelwel

Recent synonyms: Alcelaphus lelwel - Groves C & Grubb P (2011) and Wilson D E & Mittermeier R A (2011) consider this subspecies as full species.


Other endemic subspecies

A. buselaphus swaynei (Korkay)
A. buselaphus tora (Tora hartebeest)


Description

Total length: 160 - 215 cm
Tail length: 30 - 70 cm
Shoulder height: 107 - 150 cm
Weight: (f) 116 - 185 kg, (m) 125 - 218 kg
Gestation: 8 months


Distribution

A. b. lelwel: W, SW Ethiopia, E, S South Sudan


Conservation Status

IUCN - Red List Category & Category: Endangered A2acd ver 3.1


Trend:Decreasing
Lelwel is the most abundant subspecies in this region with its biggest population in Mago-Murule, Ethiopia.

Ex situ programs/Collection plans:

EAZA RCP status:

  • not listed/not recommended

AZA RCP status:

  • not listed/not recommended


Recommendations

Links




Swayne's hartebeest

Male Female & Juvenile Group
Male Adult Group

Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei (P.L. Sclater, 1892)

F: Bubale de Swayne
G: Swaynes-; Somali-Kuhantilope
S: Alcelafo de Swayne

Recent synonyms: Alcelaphus swaynei - Groves C & Grubb P (2011) and Wilson D E & Mittermeier R A (2011) consider this subspecies as full species.


Other endemic subspecies

A. buselaphus lelwel (Lelwel hartebeest)
A. buselaphus tora (Tora hartebeest)


Description

Total length: 160 - 215 cm
Tail length: 30 - 70 cm
Shoulder height: 107 - 150 cm
Weight: (f) 116 - 185 kg, (m) 125 - 218 kg

The overall body colour ranges from silvery purplish to red or dark brown.


Distribution

A. b. swaynei: S, E and Central Ethiopia, (N Somalia [Somaliland], Djibouti: former distribution; extinct)


Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Category, ver 3.1:


Trend:Decreasing

Ex situ programs/Collection plans:

There are no individuals kept in an ex situ program.

EAZA RCP status:

  • not listed/not recommended

AZA RCP status:

  • In situ focus, ISF for A. b. swaynei; Martha Fischer, Saint Louis Zoo


Recommendations

Swayne’s hartebeest is in verge of extinction. Swayne's hartebeest are now confined entirely to three protected areas in Ethiopia: Senkele Wildlife Sanctuary, Nechisar N.P. and the newly designated  Mazie N.P.. A larger relic population of about 200 animals can be found in the Senkelle Sanctuary and a even smaller population in Nechisar National Park only. The survival of Swayne's hartebeest depends on improved protection of these remaining populations. Translocation of a small number of animals for enhancement of population size as well as genetic variation in Nechisar should be considered. No individuals of this subspecies are held in captivity.


Literature

Duckworth F (2001): Ethiopia - an Assessment of the Wildlife Situation - November 2001. Gnusletter, 21(1): 14-17.

EWCO, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1999): Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary Integrated Development Project. Oct 1999: 24.

Flagstad O, Syvertsen PO, Stenseth NC, Stacy JE, Olsaker I, Roed KH & Jakobsen KS (2000): Genetic variability in Swayne's Hartebeest, an endangered antelope of Ethiopia. Conservation Biology, 14(1): 254-264.

Handelaar LW (2000): Senkelle Reserve and Mago N.P.. Gnusletter, 2: 13.

Heckel J-O (1998): Maßnahmen zur Rettung der kritisch bedrohten Somali-Kuhantilope. ZGAP Mitteilungen, 2: 1-3.

Heckel J-O (1998): Swayne's hartebeest. Gnusletter, 2:16.

Refera B (2005): Population status of Swaney's Hartebeest in Ethiopia. Report in Monfort S & Correll T (eds): Fifth Annual Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group Meeting, 10-15.

Schloeder C et al. (1997): Ethiopia. IUCN-ASG Antelope Survey Update, Sept 1997/6: 23-49.

Stenseth NC: The Ethiopia Project: Towards a multidisciplinary approach to wildlife management: The case of the Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest Sanctuary in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. www.sum.uio.no .

Wilhelmi F (1998): Mission on Conservation Measures for the Swayne's Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Ethiopia. Report to the Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations, 11 pp.

Wilhelmi F, Kaariye XY, Hammer S, Hammer C & Heckel J-O (2006): ON THE STATUS OF WILD UNGULATES IN THE OGADEN REGION OF ETHIOPIA. Proceedings of the seventh annual SSIG meeting, 43-62.




Tora hartebeest

Adult Drawing, adult

Alcelaphus buselaphus tora Gray, 1873

F: Bubale tora
G: Tora-Kuhantilope
S: Alcelafo de Etiopia

Recent synonyms: Alcelaphus tora - Groves C & Grubb P (2011) and Wilson D E & Mittermeier R A (2011) consider this subspecies as full species.


Other endemic subspecies

A. buselaphus lelwel (Lelwel hartebeest)
A. buselaphus swaynei (Korkey, Swayne's hartebeest)


Description

Total length: 160 - 215 cm
Tail length: 30 - 70 cm
Shoulder height: 107 - 150 cm
Weight: (f) 116 - 185 kg, (m) 125 - 218 kg

Tora hartebeest's appearance is generally somewhat pale red-brown over most, head, front, and upperparts of the rump and the front legs. Hind legs and belly are whitish to yellowish, the tail is black.


Distribution

A. b. tora: N, W Ethiopia, (NW Eritrea, E Sudan: former distribution; probably extinct)


Conservation Status

IUCN red List Category, ver 3.1:

Trend: Decreasing


Ex situ programs/Collection plans:

There no individuals kept in any ex situ program.

EAZA RCP status:

  • not listed/not recommended

AZA RCP status:

  • not listed/not recommended


Recommendations

Tora hartebeest is the rarest of all subspecies. Surveys are urgently required to determine the distribution and status of the Tora hartebeest in areas such as western Eritrea, as a precursor to the development and implementation of protective measures. A survey in Western and North-western Ethiopia 2007 revealed no reliable indications on the existence in the area. There are no individuals of this subspecies held in captivity.


Literature

Butynski T (1995): Eritrea. Gnusletter, 1: 11.

Hashim IM (1996): Sudan. IUCN-ASG Antelope Survey Update, Dez 1996/3: 34-41.

Hashim IM (1998): Sudan - Status, Abundance and Distribution of Four Endangered Wildlife Species in Eastern

Sudan. Gnusletter, 17(2): 12-16.

Heckel JO, Wilhelmi F, Kaariye HY & Gebeyehu G (2007): Preliminary status assessment survey on the critically endangered Tora hartebeest (Alcelaohus buselaphus tora) in North-western Ethiopia. A report to the IUCN/SSC/Antelope Specialist Group, 23 pp.


Links


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